|Profile||Low carbohydrate and high in fat|
|Principle||This diet excludes carbohydrates from the diet totally for one to two weeks. Then it reintroduces them gradually in the following weeks to a certain threshold that each one must define in relation to its metabolism. The Atkins diet is based on three fundamentals: no hunger, no calories, no miracle pills.|
How it works ?
Dr. Robert Atkins started from three observations :
– Counting calories, reducing fat does not help in losing weight. So you have to find another way to lose weight.
– for two centuries, doctors have eliminated starches to make their patients lose weight effectively and they were probably right.
– the majority of overweight people have problems with assimilation of carbohydrates, a family history of diabetes or are pre-diabetics. Eliminating carbohydrates would thus counter this metabolic imbalance.
In 1972, in order to distinguish himself from other low-carbohydrate diets, which he believed to be insufficient, he developed a program based on the removal of ketones from the urine and respiration of carbon compounds produced by incomplete fat burning . ” For a carbohydrate intolerant Mr F, the presence of ketones in the urine is a signal of rejoicing, ” says Dr. Atkins. ” This is a sign that unwanted fat is burned, so the body loses weight . “
According to Dr. Atkins’ initial recommendations, a person under the regimen must perform a urine test daily to measure ketone levels, verify that she is still losing weight, and thus measure her carbohydrate tolerance level during the carbohydrate reintroduction phase. But to eliminate ketones, you first have to remove all carbohydrates from the diet so that it is the stored fat that serves as fuel to the body and not the ingested sugars.
Based on a sharp reduction in carbohydrates, this diet was particularly effective but hitherto suffered from a bad reputation among doctors who accused it of being:
– too restrictive and therefore difficult to follow in the long term;
– unbalanced: eggs, bacon, butter, red meat … too much fat, not enough fruits and vegetables;
– to be accompanied by troublesome side effects (at first fatigue, migraines …).
In 2011, three professors of academic medicine, Dr. Eric Westman, Dr. Stephen Phinney and Dr. Jeff Volek, are developing a new version of the Atkins Diet that echoes the most recent diet and nutrition considerations, Making the program easier to follow and more flexible. Read the interview with Dr. Eric Westman .
The New Diet Atkins is a low carb diet, with no calorie limitation. It promotes high-density foods – lean protein, a wide variety of fiber-rich fruits and vegetables and good fats – while limiting refined sugars and carbohydrates. There is no need to measure ketone levels in the urine, because of these nutritional choices, the body will turn into a real ” fat burning machine “.
The New Atkins Diet does not have the disadvantages of the original version.
The New Atkins Diet is a four-phase diet
Phase 1: start-up phase
– Lasts 2 weeks minimum, extended if the person has a lot of weight to lose.
– The body adapts by preferentially burning fat which triggers weight loss.
– Limit carbohydrate consumption to 20 g per day. 12 to 15 g of these carbohydrates must come from non-starchy vegetables (expanded list compared to the initial Atkins diet).
– All foods containing sugar, cereals in any form, fruit juices and concentrates are excluded.
– Snack at 10 am and 4 pm (Atkins bars)
Phase 2: Continuous Weight Loss Phase
– Start adding berries, nuts, seeds, some legumes …
– Increase the daily intake of carbohydrates, in increments of 5 g until balance is reached, ie carbohydrate consumption should not slow down the weight loss ( carbohydrate threshold for loss of Weight ).
– Continue this phase up to 5 kg of the target weight.
Phase 3: prestabilization phase
– Expand the range of carbohydrate foods: other fruits, starchy foods and finally cereals …
– As long as the weight loss continues, increase carbohydrate consumption by 10 g per day.
– When the person approaches the target weight, she must test the amount of carbohydrates that she can consume without regaining weight ( Atkins carbohydrate balance threshold ).
– When the weight has stabilized for at least 1 month, proceed to phase 4.
Phase 4: final stabilization phase
– Continue to consume the various foods of phase 3 and monitor its weight for life.
– Each person must learn to manage his / her own weight, some will have to continue to consume little carbohydrates (sensitive people) and others will be able to expand the range of carbohydrate foods (tolerant people).
The main rules to follow
- Do not count calories anymore.
- Eat as much food as you need to get full.
- Do not eat if you are not hungry
- Do not feel obliged to finish your plate because there is food in it
- Drink as much water and sweetened drinks as your body claims. Do not restrict liquids … but do not abuse them either.
- Small frequent meals are preferred
- If you feel weak because of the speed of weight loss, you may be missing salt
- Take a daily supplement of multi-vitamins
Is The New Atkins Diet Right for Me?
If low calorie diets that restrict fat have never helped you to slim down or stabilize your weight, Atkins will probably suit you. With good fats being allowed, the New Atkins is much less frustrating.
By reducing carbohydrates and allowing snacks, it limits cravings which makes it easier to follow in the long run.
The New Atkins Diet adapts to vegetarians and vegans.
What does the research say?
The Atkins diet, long displeased, astonishes by the density of its good results, in the studies that examined it. Dr. Atkins never himself engaged in scientific studies on his ” revolutionary regime .” He considered it unnecessary, since the results were systematically there in these patients.
Dr. Westman and Dr. Volek, however, persuaded him to be amenable to a scientific evaluation of his method, and today there are many studies that have evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the Atkins diet .
One of the most recent, published in July 2008, compared the effectiveness on body weight of three types of diets: an Atkins-type diet, low in starchy foods and sugars, with no restriction on calories consumed, Low-calorie Mediterranean diet, and ultimately a diet low in fat and calories. Result after two years: it was the people who followed the diet low in starches that lost the most weight. They are also the ones who have seen their health improve the most. (1) The study involved 322 moderately obese individuals. Of the 272 participants who completed the experiment, the average weight loss was 3.3 kg for the low fat diet, 4.6 kg for the Mediterranean diet and 5.5 kg for the diet. Atkins type diet.
Another study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in March 2007 suggests that the Atkins diet is more effective than three other diets advocated by nutritionists to lose weight. (2)
Researchers at Stanford University’s Faculty of Medicine in the United States compared for a year the merits of Atkins, Zone, LEARN and Ornish diets and 311 obese or overweight women. The LEARN and Ornish diets approach the traditional recommendations of nutritionists, while Atkins and Zone advocate reducing carbohydrates. The result is that the women lost the most weight with the Atkins diet: on average twice as much as the others. At the end of one year, women in the Atkins group lost an average of 4.7 kg, compared with 2.6 kg, 2.2 kg and 1.6 kg respectively for the LEARN, Ornish and Zone groups.
Their blood pressure also decreased more than other diets and their blood levels of triglycerides were lower.
In 2006, a British study compared the low-carbohydrate Atkins diet to Slim-Fast (High Protein), Weight Watchers (low calorie, with psychological accompaniment in the form of group meetings) Rosemary Conley (low in fat, With Weight Watchers-type support The 6-month results show that all programs allow for approximately the same weight loss that has been accompanied by a decrease in waist circumference.The Atkins diet appears to be more effective over the four First weeks. (3)
Finally, the analysis in 2006 of several of these studies comparing a low-fat diet to a low carb diet of the Atkins or Zone type concluded that these “are probably at least as effective as the first ones to lose weight.” (3)
These results contrast with the classic recommendations of nutritionists to lose weight. The official recommendations advocate a diet rich in cereals and potatoes, and low in fat – the exact opposite of the Atkins diet. But today eminent researchers acknowledge that Atkins, was wrongly decried. Thus, Professor Walter Willet (Harvard), believes that ” Atkins had seen right “.
The lead author of the 2007 study, Christopher Gardner (University of California, Stanford), acknowledges that the results he obtained have shaken his certainties. It may be useful, he says, to minimize the share of carbohydrates, particularly refined, in its diet.
|The power of seduction of the Atkins diet lies in the fact that one can eat varied (proteins, good fats, vegetables, walnuts, berries …) and this without limitation of calories. Only carbohydrates should be given special attention.
Less frustrating than a low-fat diet, the Atkins diet is also healthier and more effective in the long run. There remains the question of carbohydrate counting. Binding at first, it takes a little time to take its marks.
For the little story
Robert Atkins was a lean child, who lacked appetite. On leaving high school, he weighed only a little over 60 kg for 1.83 m. During his graduate years, Robert Atkins takes more than 20 kg and continues to maintain his overweight for ten years. In his head, he remains the skinny teenager he was, so his appearance does not worry him. In 1963, it was a shock: looking at a picture of him, he realized that he had three chins and looked 15 years older than his age. He then decides to take charge. But there is a big problem: he has no will to follow a strict diet, nor want to be hungry all the time. This is why he developed his ” revolutionary regime “. If his regime meets a great popular success, it is strongly criticized by the majority of nutritionists and doctors.
In 2003, after the sudden death of Atkins, the controversy reappears. Would Atkins have been the victim of the long-term harmful effects of his own regime? It turns out that Dr. Atkins died from a bad fall on an icy sidewalk. However, at his death, this adept of his own revolutionary regime weighed the trifle of 117 kg according to the official authorities of the hospital … or, according to his relatives, 28.5 kg more than his estimated weight when he entered the hospital, Hospital a few days earlier. According to his widow, this explosive increase would be linked to a sudden deterioration of his state of health, Dr. Atkins suffering from heart disease (cardiomyopathy) unrelated to his diet. Read Mrs Atkins’ statement on the health of her husband.