Low in carbohydrates and enriched in fat (or fat), the ketogenic diet is based on the principle that the body will go to tap into its fat stores to produce energy. What do you think? How is this diet practised? Are there health risks?
ketogenic refers to ketosis, a state in which the body, in the absence of carbohydrates, goes into the fat to make small molecules called ketones or ketones that will then serve as energy. “It’s about pushing the body to make its energy out of fat, ” says Magali Walkowicz, dietician-nutritionist. In short, you change fuel: from the carb mode to lipid mode.
EAT MORE FAT WITH A KETOGENIC DIET?
” The ketogenic diet is a lot of fat, just enough protein and very little carbohydrate,” says the dietician. Each person is different, but by adopting the rule of 3/1 (3 grammes of lipids per 1 gramme of non-lipids), one usually arrives to enter in ketosis. »Translation: it’s the feast of fat!
Butter, cheese, crème fraîche, cold meats, oilseeds, vegetable oils, duck fat, yoghurts, fatty fish, avocado all are allowed. ” However, cooked fats are avoided, milk products are limited to 2 per day, care is taken to ensure a good omega three / omega six ratio with fatty fish, rapeseed or linseed oil, linseed, And a good intake of omega 9 with olive oil, “says the specialist. Priority is also given to fats containing medium chain triglycerides (TCMs) which promote ketosis. The champion in the field: coconut oil. On the protein side, ” one is in a normoproteinized diet, with a contribution of 0.8 g to 1 g / kg of weight “. On the other hand, it is the carbohydrates that do the housekeeping, because a very low carbohydrate intake is the sine qua non for entering in ketosis. We forget the fruit, except for the red berries (50 g per day max), we make a cross on cereals and starches and we prefer the vegetables low in carbohydrates: salad, mushrooms, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, Celery-branch, endive.
“It is advisable to be accompanied by a specialist to check the tolerance of the body and the absence of deficiencies. ”
A typical day with the ketogenic diet
Upon rising: a glass of water with a lemon juice.
Breakfast: céto muesli (oleaginous + ground flax seeds + 85% chocolate shavings), 10 cl almond milk, a “bulletproof coffee” (1 black coffee without sugar + 10 g of clarified butter + 1 cl d ‘coconut oil).
Lunch: green salad (rapeseed oil, vinegar), chopped steak with sautéed mushrooms (olive oil), 1 square 85% chocolate.
Taste: red fruit smoothie, silky tofu and 1 teaspoon of coconut oil.
Dinner: smoked salmon, marinated peppers, 1 plain soy yoghurt with 1 teaspoon of grated coconut and 1 teaspoon of coconut oil.
WHAT IS THE KETOGENIC DIET?
Originally, it is medical. The ketosis state has indeed therapeutic virtues used for a long time in epileptic children and, more recently, in patients with Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s. ” Today, its most common use is in patients with cancer, ” observes the dietician. Why ? Simply because cancer cells, which need to feed on all cells, are unable to eat ketones, hence the idea of adopting this regime to “starve them”.
The ketogenic diet gradually emerges from this therapeutic framework and some dieticians use it for a slimming purpose. Interest get out of the infernal circle of the yoyo of blood sugar, generating cravings, and storing fat, and burning a maximum amount of fat.
” You have to be rigorous about the amounts ingested to force the body to tap into its reserves of fat to produce its energy. ”
IS IT COMPATIBLE WITH SPORT?
Many bodybuilders use the ketogenic diet in cyclical form, during dry periods. But for the endurance athlete, do ketones provide energy as reliable as glycogen? According to a recent study published in the journal “Metabolism Clinical and Experimental”, in riders, this diet boosts the elimination of fat for equivalent performance. These results are nevertheless different depending on the sporting level or the corpulence, and other studies are necessary to validate the good quality of this energy chain. What is certain, on the other hand, is that ” the ketogenic diet makes it possible to maintain a stable blood sugar and thus to avoid the energy drops often fatal to the sportsmen”, observes Magali Walkowicz. However, a slight increase in protein may be a problem in maintaining muscle mass, ” but if we start on hyper protein, we will need to review the calculation of energy intake to reach the state of ketosis, ” the pro says.